IETS & Law


Industrial Effluent Treatment System or in short IETS, is a pollution control technique in ensuring contaminated wastewater (effluent) from its respective origin (usually the industrial processes) be treated to a level that is acceptable under the laws and permits, prior its release or discharged into any receiving water bodies (inland waters) in the country. 

This document is displaying what the law requires. The law is a subsidiary regulation of the Malaysian Environmental Quality Act, 1974 called Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent) Regulations 2009. I'll try to interpret it in the most simple and comprehensive manner progressively whenever time permits. First question, however, does the discharge limits really solved polluted water bodies? What is missing? Find them in discussions below.
Aeration Ditch or Oxidation Ditch is a biological treatment
component of an industrial IETS used to treat its organic
composition by using effective microorganisms in the
abundance of oxygen. If you've been in my training, I
believe you could recall about the 'teh-tarik' color!
Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent) Regulations 2009.
Interpretation
2. In these Regulations—
best management practices” means practical, structural or non-structural methods for the purpose of preventing or reducing the discharge of industrial effluent or mixed effluent containing contaminants;
industrial effluent” means any waste in the form of liquid or wastewater generated from manufacturing process including the treatment of water for water supply or any activity occurring at any industrial premises;
Best Management Practice for an existing facility begins at
the upstream activity. Preferably, prior from its source of
effluent generation. This picture indicates that the Top
Management is the frontier in promoting a sound BMP 

- clearly in absence of adequate support. A healthy relation 
between environmental and administrative personnel can 
spur initiation of business-worthy BMP. Been there, seen it.
mixed effluent” means any waste in the form of liquid or wastewater containing both industrial effluent and sewage;
sludge” means any deposit of particulate matter settled from any liquid, including deposit resulting from physical, chemical, biological or other treatment of water or industrial effluent or mixed effluent;
professional engineer” has the same meaning assigned to it in the Registration of Engineers Act 1967 [Act 138];
sewage” means any liquid waste or wastewater discharge containing human, animal, domestic, or putrescible  (terrible/busuk) matter  in suspension or solution, and includes liquids containing chemicals in solution either in the raw, treated or partially treated form;
“licence” means a licence referred to in regulation 15 pursuant to subsection 25(1) of the Act;
parameter” means chemical oxygen demand or any of the factors shown in the first column of the Fifth Schedule or in the Ninth Schedule;
authorized officer” means any officer appointed under section 3 of the Act or any other officer to whom the Director General has delegated his power under section 49 of the Act; “batch discharge” means any controlled discharge of a discrete volume of industrial effluent or mixed effluent;
licensed premises” means premises occupied by a person who is the holder of a licence issued in respect of the premises; and
industrial effluent treatment system” means any facility including the effluent collection system, designed and constructed for the purpose of reducing the potential of the industrial effluent or mixed effluent to cause pollution.
Application - (meaning 'who' is subjected to this law! Thus, not all originators of industrial effluent is subscribing to it)
3. These Regulations shall apply to any premises which discharge or release industrial effluent or mixed effluent, onto or into any soil, or into inland waters or Malaysian waters, other than the premises as specified in the First Schedule. (see immediately below)
FIRST SCHEDULE (Regulation 3)
LIST OF PREMISES TO WHICH THESE REGULATIONS Do NOT APPLY
1. Processing of oil-palm fruit or oil-palm fresh fruit bunches into crude palm oil, whether as an intermediate or final product
2. Processing of natural rubber in technically specified form, latex form including prevulcanised or the form of modified and special purpose rubber, conventional sheet, skim, crepe or scrap rubber
3. Mining activities
4. Processing, manufacturing, washing or servicing of any other products or goods that produce industrial effluent or mixed effluent of less than 60 cubic meters per day
5. Processing, manufacturing, washing or servicing of any other products or goods that produce industrial effluent or mixed effluent of which does not contain oil and grease or those contaminants listed as parameters (v) to (xv) in the first column of the Fifth Schedule (see immediately below) 
Process Flow Summary of the Rubber Glove Manufacturing. Of course, apart from respecting this industry for keeping
our 'skin' safe, we should also appreciate that their main raw material is a Renewable Resource. Latex is from replantable rubber trees, similarly with the Palm Oil industry in Malaysia, Olive Oil, Soy Oil, etc. from around the globe are agricultural crops. But, these 'Green Materials' generates industrial effluent which are usually highly organic in nature. Well, talking about BOD5 of between 15000 up to 30000 mg/L of raw influent that enters what is usually a biological treatment schemes. And, the respective IETS has to assimilate them to BOD levels of well below 50 or 100 mg/L.
Thanks to those bacterial cheap labourers. Good bugs.




FIFTH SCHEDULE
[Paragraph 11(1)(a)]
ACCEPTABLE CONDITIONS FOR DISCHARGE OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT OR MIXED EFFLUENT OF STANDARDS A AND B
Parameter                             Unit                                                                  Standard 
                                                                                                        A                                  B
(1)                                         (2)                                                     (3)                                (4)
(i) Temperature                    Deg.C                                                  40                                 40
(ii) pH Value                           –                                                   6.0-9.0                          5.5-9.0
(iii) BOD5 at 20oC               mg/L                                                   20                                 50
(iv) Suspended Solids            mg/L                                                  50                                100
(v) Mercury                          mg/L                                                    0.005                              0.05
(vi) Cadmium                        mg/L                                                    0.01                                0.02
(vii) Chromium, Hexavalent   mg/L                                                    0.05                                0.05
(viii) Chromium, Trivalent      mg/L                                                    0.20                                1.0
(ix) Arsenic                           mg/L                                                    0.05                                  0.10
(x) Cyanide                           mg/L                                                    0.05                                  0.10
(xi) Lead                               mg/L                                                    0.10                                  0.5
(xii) Copper                          mg/L                                                    0.20                                  1.0
(xiii) Manganese                    mg/L                                                    0.20                                  1.0
(xiv) Nickel                           mg/L                                                    0.20                                  1.0
(xv) Tin                                 mg/L                                                    0.20                                  1.0
(xvi) Zinc                              mg/L                                                     2.0                                    2.0
(xvii) Boron                          mg/L                                                     1.0                                    4.0
(xviii) Iron (Fe)                     mg/L                                                     1.0                                    5.0
(xix) Silver                            mg/L                                                     0.1                                   1.0
(xx) Aluminium                     mg/L                                                   10                                     15
(xxi) Selenium                       mg/L                                                     0.02                                  0.5
(xxii) Barium                         mg/L                                                     1.0                                    2.0
(xxiii) Fluoride                       mg/L                                                    2.0                                     5.0
(xxiv) Formaldehyde              mg/L                                                    1.0                                     2.0
(xxv) Phenol                          mg/L                                                    0.001                                 1.0
(xxvi) Free Chlorine              mg/L                                                     1.0                                     2.0
(xxvii) Sulphide                     mg/L                                                     0.50                                   0.50
(xxviii) Oil and Grease          mg/L                                                     1.0                                    10
(xxix) Ammoniacal Nitrogen  mg/L                                                  10                                       20
(xxx) Colour                      ADMI*                                               100                                     200
*ADMI–American Dye Manufacturers Institute
6. Processing, manufacturing, washing or servicing of any other products or goods where the total load of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 at 20°C) or suspended solids or both, shall not exceed 6 kilogrammes per day (concentration of 100 milligrammes per litre)
Leakage of Hydraulic and Lube
Oil as seen in this picture was
the origin for the detection of
'Oil & Grease' in an initial
sampling of water discharge
from this premise. This facility
is a 'dry mechanical process'
which does not generate industrial
effluent. But, until all oily leaks
are addressed and secured from
entering its drainage system,
they are not exempted from
First Schedule of Regulation 3.

Obligation to notify the Director General
4. (1) No person shall, without prior written notification to the Director General—
(a) carry out any work on any premises that may result in a new source of discharge of industrial effluent or mixed effluent;
(b) construct on any land, building or facility designed or used for a purpose that may cause the land or building or facility to result in a new source of discharge of industrial effluent or mixed effluent;
(c) make or cause or permit to be made any change of, to, or in any plant, machine, or equipment used or installed at the premises that causes a material change in the quantity or quality of the discharge or release from an existing source; or
(d) carry out upgrading work of an existing industrial effluent treatment system that may result in a material change in the quantity or quality of the discharge or release.
(2) The written notification to carry out any work, construction, or upgrading, or to make any change referred to in subregulation (1) shall be submitted to the Director General in the form as specified in the Second Schedule (Please refer to the law text or contact the DOE for the form) within thirty days before the work or construction or upgrading commences.
Leakage of hydraulic oil from its
compressor machines had caused for
the detection of 'Oil & Grease' at the
'Final Discharge Point' of a company's
internal drainage system.

Design and construction of industrial effluent treatment system
5. (1) An owner or occupier of a premises shall conduct any design and construction of the industrial effluent treatment system to collect and treat the industrial effluent or mixed effluent generated within the premises in strict compliance with the specifications as specified in the Guidance Document on the Design and Operation of Industrial Effluent Treatment System issued by the Department of Environment. (Please refer to the law text or contact the DOE for a copy) 
A mini Oil Trap was installed months later
to address the leakage from its compressor
machines. Seems that leaking compressor
machines are inevitable? Engineering
investigation for the causes of leaking
compressor machines followed through
subsequently and this mini oil trap is a
contingency equipment. 

(2) An owner or occupier of the premises shall appoint a professional engineer to undertake the design and supervision of the construction of the industrial effluent treatment system and the work performed shall meet the satisfaction of the Director General.
(3) An owner or occupier of the premises and the professional engineer referred to in subregulation (2) shall provide a written declaration, in a form as specified in the Third Schedule, certifying that the design and construction of the industrial effluent treatment system have complied with the specifications referred to in subregulation (1). (Please refer to the law text or contact the DOE for the form)
(4) As-built drawings that show the placement of any works or structures that form part of the industrial effluent treatment system shall be submitted to the Director General not later than thirty days from the date the premises commences operation.
(5) In this regulation, “as-built drawings” means any engineering drawing that shows the placement of facilities as measured after a work is completed.
IETS design begins from a good knowledge of the effluent
characteristics. Its composition and pollutant loadings. The
different types of pollutants are represented by the different
'parameters'. The chemistry of this effluent must be well
understood prior designing an economically viable and
sustainable IETS. Well, please reuse the treated water and
make
useable product out of the sludge cake. They are
resources, aren't they? Well, do we have to continue
demolishing all our hills and mountains which are the
strongest infra-structures that supports our civilization?

Oh, that's where most of our building and industrial
raw material were excavated from before they pollute
streams and marines. Oh yes, indeed.

Compliance with specifications of industrial effluent treatment system
6. (1) No person shall operate any industrial effluent treatment system unless it complies with the specifications as specified in subregulation 5(1).
(2) The Director General may issue a directive to the owner or occupier of a premises who does not comply with subregulation (1) requiring him to repair, alter, replace or install any additional equipment or instruments or to conduct performance monitoring of industrial effluent treatment system at his own expense, in any manner as the Director General may determine in such directive.

Monitoring of discharge of industrial effluent or mixed effluent
7. (1) An owner or occupier of a premises that discharges industrial effluent or mixed effluent onto or into any soil, or into any inland waters or Malaysian waters shall, at his own expense—
(a) monitor the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and any parameter as specified in the Fifth Schedule; and (b) install flow-meters, sampling, monitoring and recording equipment.
(2) The owner or occupier of the premises shall maintain a record of industrial effluent or mixed effluent discharge monitoring data in the form as specified in the Tenth Schedule.
TENTH SCHEDULE [Subregulation 7(2)]
MONTHLY INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT OR MIXED EFFLUENT
DISCHARGE MONITORING REPORT
SECTION I
IDENTIFICATION
1. (i) Name and address of premises:
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
Telephone number:.…………………Fax number:………………………........
(ii) File reference number (if applicable): ………...…………………………......
2. (i) Name and address of accredited analytical laboratory:
..............................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
Telephone number:.…………………Fax number:……………..……………..
(ii) Name of analyst:..........................................................................................................................
3. (i) Reporting year:……………………………………………………………….........................
(ii) Reporting month: ……………………………………………………………........................
A type of flow-meter which is
situated just before the Final
Discharge Point - mesuring
current value in Cubic Meters/hr.
SECTION II
INFORMATION ON INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT OR MIXED EFFLUENT
4. (i) Flowrate*
Minimum:……………………. m3/d, Maximum:…………………….…. m3/d
(ii) Quality of effluent discharged (unit in mg/L)
Parameter***                 First Week      Second Week       Third Week      Fourth Week 
                                       Date:               Date:                     Date:                Date:
Temperature 
pH Value
BOD5 at 20°C
COD
Suspended Solids
Mercury
Cadmium
Chromium, Hexavalent
Arsenic
Cyanide
Lead
Chromium, Trivalent
Copper
Manganese
Nickel
Tin
Zinc
Boron
Iron
Silver
Aluminium
Selenium
Barium
Fluoride
Formaldehyde
Phenol
Free Chlorine
Sulphide
Oil and Grease
(n-hexane extract)
Ammoniacal Nitrogen
Colour**
* The flowrate and concentration of industrial effluent or mixed effluent at the point of
discharge as determined in accordance with the sampling procedure and method of analysis
as specified in regulation 16.
** ADMI unit
*** Choose only the significant parameters
Flow-meter engineered by several
Malaysian undergraduates.
Able to measure current value in m3/hr.
Max: 120m3/hr. Accuracy: only +/- 5m3/hr.
Where are these innovative thinkers now?
Subdued by 'technocrats'?

SECTION III
DECLARATION
I, …………………….hereby declare that all information given in this form is to the best of my knowledge and belief true and correct.
Signature of responsible person:
………………………………….....................…..
Name: ………………………………...................
Designation: ………………………….................
Date : …………………………………................
(Affix official seal or stamp of the company)

(3) The owner or occupier of the premises shall submit the first record of industrial effluent or mixed effluent discharge monitoring data to the Director General within thirty days after the date of coming into operation of these Regulations and the subsequent records shall be submitted within thirty days after the end of the calendar month for the report of the previous month.
(4) The record of industrial effluent or mixed effluent discharge shall also be made available for inspection by any authorized officer.
What to do with such amount of data? Most are storing them for short-term interpretation which normally comes around during periodic audits or performance reports. Personally, I'm viewing these figures of facts as very valuable information for future decision making. For instance, how could these data be used to tell us that our existing treatment system could cope for an additional production line, changed raw materials or other process variables? Final discharged treated qualities alone can't tell much about the actual capability of our IETS. Kindly view what I wrote in this article, give it a deep thought and expand it further: - http://sekitarsynergy.blogspot.com/2012/02/ietswwtp-tips-on-iets-logbook.html 
Proper operation of industrial effluent treatment system
8. (1) An owner or occupier of a premises shall operate and maintain industrial effluent treatment system in accordance with sound engineering practice for the treatment of the industrial effluent or mixed effluent and ensure that all components of the industrial effluent treatment system are in good working condition.
(2) In this regulation, “sound engineering practice” means the manner by which effluent treatment system is operated where the operational characteristics are maintained within the normal range of values commonly used for the treatment of industrial effluent or mixed effluent.
Flocculation & Coagulation is not just about using expensive
poly-electrolyte agent. Of course, it's auto dosing with pH
sensor relayed to the Dosing Pump. But, How clean is our
pH probe? How often is its calibration with standard KCl?

Wrong pH reading leads to false signal to those pumps.
So, what happens next?

Performance monitoring of effluent treatment system
9. (1) An owner or occupier of a premises shall—
(a) conduct performance monitoring of the components of the effluent treatment system in the manner as specified in the Guidance Document on Performance Monitoring of Industrial Effluent Treatment Systems
issued by Department of Environment; and (b) equip himself or itself with facilities, relevant equipment or instruments for the purpose of conducting performance monitoring referred to in
paragraph (a).
Sampling Personnel, Equipment and Technique is vital in achieving accurate and representative data. Here, sampling
are also done up-stream and down-stream from the point where the discharge of treated effluent enters this river. Proudly enough that this national oil company is already doing it for decades! Having said this, however, what is still missing in this country? Has anyone seen a national environmental report published by the 'Agency' in which contains important inference like "how much more, of which pollutant loads, are bearable by each river basin" around the nation? In other words, for example, the Klang River, a popularity associated with heavy pollution; - How much more of BOD, COD, SS, Metal etc. loads are able to be 'taken in' by this river? - Its Assimilative Capacity! Has it already reaching its 'Threshold'? If it has, then, stop introducing new effluent discharges from new sources here. Those new sources can be transferred to new industrial sites with Centralized Industrial Effluent-Sewage Treatment Plants, thus, ensuring continual industrial growth via more viable operation for these businesses as they'd pay much less to treat industrial effluent! Sustainable Industrialization vis-a-vis Sustainable Development in practice! We can't just cut costs until we have nothing left to cut. Innovation!
Sampling & in-situ test of treated effluent at its
Final Discharge Point.
(2) In this regulation, “performance monitoring” means the routine monitoring of certain characteristics to provide an indication that a treatment process is functional and capable of treating the industrial effluent or mixed effluent.

Competent person
10. (1) The operation of an industrial effluent treatment system shall be supervised by a competent person.
(2) A competent person shall be any person who has been certified by the Director General that he is duly qualified to supervise the operation of an industrial effluent treatment system.
(3) An owner or occupier of a premises shall ensure that a competent person is on duty at any time the industrial effluent treatment system is in operation.

Acceptable conditions for the discharge of industrial effluent other than parameter of chemical oxygen demand (COD)parameter of chemical oxygen demand (COD)
11. (1) No person shall discharge industrial effluent which contains any parameter in concentration greater than the limits of—
(a) Standard A, as shown in the third column of the Fifth Schedule, into any inland waters within the catchment areas as specified in the Sixth Schedule; or
(b) Standard B, as shown in the fourth column of the Fifth Schedule, into any other inland waters or Malaysian waters.
  • IETS - Chemical Treatment System
  • average flow of 5m3 per day
  • containing Ni and Cd soluble
  • RM30,000/mth to maintain this.
(2) Where two or more of the metals specified as parameters (xii) to (xvi) as specified in the Fifth Schedule, pursuant to subregulation (1), are present in the industrial effluent or mixed effluent, the concentration of these metals shall not be greater than—
(a) 0.5 milligrammes per litre in total, where Standard A is applicable;
or
(b) 3.0 milligrammes per litre in total, and 1.0 milligramme per litre in total for soluble forms, where Standard B is applicable.
(3) Where Standard B is applicable and when both phenol and free chlorine are present in the same industrial effluent, the concentration of phenol individually, shall not be greater than 0.2 milligrammes per litre and the concentration of free chlorine individually, shall not be greater than 1 milligramme per litre.
IETS - this is purely chemical treatment as the influent is
totally inorganic and have high COD loads. The use of
polymers as flocculent and coagulants shouldn't be taken
for granted. They have a certain pH range to work.

Acceptable conditions for the discharge of industrial effluent for parameter of chemical oxygen demand (COD)
12. In relation to any trade or industry as specified in the Seventh Schedule (see immediately below), No person shall discharge industrial effluent which contains COD in concentration greater than the limits of—
(a) Standard A, as shown in the third column of the Seventh Schedule, into any inland waters within the catchment areas as specified in the Sixth Schedule; or
(b) Standard B, as shown in the fourth column of the Seventh Schedule, into any other inland waters or Malaysian waters. (The Sixth Schedule - it's a mind-blowing GPS coordinates - too lengthy. Please refer to the law text or contact the DOE for confirmation)
SEVENTH SCHEDULE (Regulation 12)
ACCEPTABLE CONDITIONS FOR DISCHARGE OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT CONTAINING CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD) FOR SPECIFIC TRADE OR INDUSTRY SECTOR
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Trade/Industry                                     Unit                      Standard      Standard B
(a) Pulp and paper industry
            (i) pulp mill                             mg/L                            80                  350
            (ii) paper mill (recycled)          mg/L                            80                  250
            (iii) pulp and paper mill            mg/L                            80                  300
(b) Textile industry                              mg/L                            80                  250
(c) Fermentation and distillery industry mg/L                          400                  400
(d) Other industries                             mg/L                            80                  200
Ethylene Glycol at large? He's just
replaced the radiator coolant!

Acceptable conditions for the discharge of mixed effluent for parameter of chemical oxygen demand (COD)
13. No person shall discharge mixed effluent which contains COD in concentration greater than the limits of—
(a) Standard A, as shown in the second column of the Eighth Schedule (see immediately below), into any inland waters within the catchment areas as specified in the Sixth Schedule; or
(b) Standard B, as shown in the third column of the Eighth Schedule, into any other inland waters or Malaysian waters.


EIGHTH SCHEDULE (Regulation 13)
ACCEPTABLE CONDITIONS FOR DISCHARGE OF MIXED EFFLUENT CONTAINING CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD)
(1)                                  (2)                                      (3)
Unit                           Standard                             Standard
                                       A                                        B
mg/L                               80                                     200
Wet Scrubber - an air pollution control
equipment turned effluent source.

Best management practice for the discharge of industrial effluent or mixed effluent for other parameters
14. An owner or occupier of a premises shall adopt the best management practice for discharge of any industrial effluent or mixed effluent for any parameter as specified in the Ninth Schedule.

NINTH SCHEDULE (Regulation 14)
LIST OF PARAMETERS FOR DISCHARGE OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT OR MIXED EFFLUENT WHICH BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE TO BE ADOPTED
(i) Nitrate Nitrogen
(ii) Sulphate
(iii) Chloride
(iv) Cobalt
(v) Detergent, Anionic
(vi) Molybdenum
(vii) Phosphate (as P)
(viii) Polychlorinated Biphenyls
(ix) Beryllium
(x) Vanadium
(xi) Pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, fumigants or any other biocides or any other chlorinated hydrocarbons
(xii) Any substance that either by itself or in combination or by reaction with other waste may give rise to any gas, fume or odour or substance which causes or is likely to cause pollution
(xiii) Total Organic Carbon
(xiv) Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET)
(xv) Dioxin
(xvi) Endocrine disruptors
BMP in practice. Spent liquid solvent
are separated and recovered using
physical treatment. Significantly
reduced the effluents' COD load.

Licence to contravene the acceptable conditions for the discharge of industrial effluent or mixed effluent
15. (1) Any person may apply for a licence under subsection 25(1) of the Act to contravene the acceptable conditions of discharge of industrial effluent or mixed effluent as specified in regulations 11, 12 and 13.
(2) An application for a licence shall be made in accordance with the procedures as specified in the Environmental Quality (Licensing) Regulations 1977 [P.U. (A) 198/1977] and shall be accompanied by—
(a) a report on industrial effluent characterization study in a format as specified in the Guidance Document on Industrial Effluent Characterization Study issued by Department of Environment; and
(b) a licence and effluent-related licence fee as specified in regulation 31.

Methods of analysis and sampling of industrial effluent or mixed effluent
16. (1) An authorized officer may carry out an in-situ or ex-situ analysis of industrial effluent or mixed effluent using any instruments approved by the Director General.
(2) An analysis of any industrial effluent or mixed effluent discharged or released onto or into any soil, or into any inland waters or Malaysian waters shall be carried out in accordance with the methods contained in the
publications as specified in the Fourth Schedule.
FOURTH SCHEDULE [Subregulation 16(2)]
METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT OR MIXED EFFLUENT
1. The 21st edition of “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater” published jointly by the American Public Health Association, the American Water Works Association and the Water Environment Federation of the United States of America; or
2. “Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Chapter 1, Subchapter D, part 136” published by the Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration, United States of America.
(3) The analysis of the industrial effluent or mixed effluent referred to in subregulation (1) shall be based on grab samples.
(4) In this regulation—
(a) “ex-situ analysis” means the analysis conducted on an industrial effluent or mixed effluent sample that has been removed from its location and conducted at the different site from the site the sample was taken;
(b) “in-situ analysis” means the analysis conducted on an industrial effluent or mixed effluent sample that has not been removed from its location or conducted at the site where the sample was taken; and
(c) “grab sample” means a discrete individual sample taken within a period of time of less than fifteen minutes.
The lady was then a fresh graduate - a Chemist.
She helped me in the first couple of years after setting up
Sekitar Synergy Sdn Bhd. She's a high-flyer today and have
an environmental lab. Very hard working, dedicated to work
and trustworthy. If, she is viewing this and recognized
herself, I'd love to hear from her. Clue - she's from Sarawak!

So, sampling point, personnel, methods, apparatus & equipment are prone to errors, thus, rendering the data as doubtful if not challenged in legal terms. Lets observe sample preservation and let our Chemists and Lawyers worries about the rest. Here's something from the 'old school' based on Reference: APHA 19th Edition 1995; Hope to have the updated version from you. I'm too tired to surf. It's too windy!
PARAMETER
CONTAINER
MIN. SIZE (mL)
PRESERVATION
Minimum RecommendedStorage / Regulatory
BOD
P,G
1000
REFRIGERATE
24 hrs/14 d
COD
P,G
100
Analyze immediately or refrigerate and add HCL to pH<2
7 d / 28 d
Oil & Grease
G, wide mouth
1000
Add H2SO4 to PH<2, refrigerate
28 d / 28 d
Solids
P,G
200
Refrigerate
7 d/ 2-7 d
Metals, gen.
P(A), G(A)
500
For dissolved metals; filter immediately, add HNO3 to pH<2
6 months / 6 months
Cr 6+
P(A), G(A)
300
refrigerate
24 hr / 24 hr
Hg
P(A), G(A)
500
add HNO3 to pH<2, refrigerate
28 d / 28 d
Boron
P
100
not required
28 d / 6 mth
Chlorine Residual
P,G
500
analyze immediately
stat
Cyanide; total
P,G
500
Add NaOH to pH>12, refrigerate in dark
24 h / /14 d If Sulphide present stat
Color
P,G
500
refrigerate
48hrs / 48hrs
Nitrogen, Ammonia
P,G
500
Analyze immediately or add H2SO4 to PH<2, refrigerate
7 d / 28 d
Phenol
P,G,
500
H2SO4 to PH<2, refrigerate
28 d
pH
P,G
50
analyze immediately
2 h / stat
Turbidity
P,G
100
Analyze same day; store in dark up to 24hrs; refrigerate
24h / 48h
Point of discharge of industrial effluent or mixed effluent
17. (1) The point of discharge of industrial effluent or mixed effluent shall comply with the specifications as specified in the Eleventh Schedule and shall be clearly indicated by the owner or occupier of a premises on the layout plans or engineering drawings certified by a professional engineer.
(2) An owner or occupier of the premises shall submit to the Director General the layout plans or engineering drawings referred to in subregulation (1) thirty days before the premises commence operation.
(3) Where an owner or occupier of the premises proposes to make any alteration or change to the location or position of the point of discharge or design of the outlet at the point of discharge of industrial effluent or mixed effluent, he or it shall notify the Director General within thirty days prior to the making of such alteration or change.
The point of final discharge (FDP) of treated effluent
is also a legal affair. We can't re-route it unless with
prior notification to the authority.
ELEVENTH SCHEDULE [Subregulation 17(1)]
SPECIFICATIONS OF POINT OF DISCHARGE OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT OR MIXED EFFLUENT
1. The discharge point is located within the boundary of the premises, immediately after the
final unit operation or unit process of the industrial effluent treatment system.
2. The location of the discharge point is easily accessible and does not pose any safety hazards to personnel performing site inspection or effluent sampling.
3. The industrial effluent or mixed effluent is discharged through a pipe, conduit or channel to facilitate effluent sampling.
Signage that indicates the type
of treatment scheme is also helpful.
An endeavor pioneered by some
Palm Oil Mills in Malaysia since
the 80s.

4. The discharge point is physically identified by installing a metal identification sign which reads “Final Discharge Point”.
5. The discharge point and its surrounding are properly maintained to be free from any obstruction that may pose difficulty or hazards during site inspection or effluent sampling.
This FDP Signage is missing.
The metal plate has economic value
and are frequently susceptible to local
thefts. The healthy signs of vegetation 
that surrounds it indicates a kind of
environmental impact - Eutrophication.
An environmental condition when 
excess nutrients are released. 
Subsequently conditions like the 
'Algal Bloom' may emerge.

Prohibition against industrial effluent or mixed effluent discharge through by-pass
18. (1) No person shall discharge or cause or permit to be discharged any industrial effluent or mixed effluent onto or into any soil, or into any inland waters or Malaysian waters through a by-pass.
(2) In this regulation, “by-pass” means any diversion of industrial effluent or mixed effluent from any portion of an industrial effluent treatment system.
An Effluent By-pass causes chronic
'coronary' effect to the aquatics.
This had CuCN from Gold Plating.

Dilution of industrial effluent or mixed effluent
19. (1) No person shall dilute, or cause or permit to be diluted, any industrial effluent or mixed effluent, whether raw or treated at any time or point after it is produced at any premises.
(2) Industrial effluent or mixed effluent becomes diluted when it undergoes a process to make it less concentrated by adding water or other liquids from external sources other than liquids or materials used for treating the industrial effluent or mixed effluent.
Oily raw effluent spilled when a
holding transfer sump cracked from a

factory 200m upstream from here.

Spill, accidental discharge or leakage of industrial effluent or mixed effluent
20. (1) In the event of the occurrence of any spill, accidental discharge or leakage of any industrial effluent or mixed effluent which either directly or indirectly gains or may gain access onto or into any soil, or into any inland waters or Malaysian waters, the owner or occupier of the premises shall immediately and not more than six hours from the time of the occurrence inform the Director General of the occurrence.
(2) An owner or occupier of the premises shall, to every reasonable extent, contain, cleanse or abate the spill, accidental discharge or leakage or recover the industrial effluent or mixed effluent discharged in a manner that satisfies the Director General.
(3) The Director General may in any particular case, if he considers it necessary to do so, specify the manner in which the spill, accidental discharge or leakage is to be contained, cleansed or abated and the owner or occupier of the premises shall comply with such specification.
(4) The Director General shall determine any damage caused by any spill, accidental discharge or leakage and may recover all costs and expenses from the owner or occupier of the premises.
(5) Where the Director General undertakes to cleanse or abate the spill, accidental discharge or leakage, he shall determine the full costs and expenses incurred and may recover such costs and expenses from the owner or occupier of the premises in accordance with the provisions of section 47 of the Act.
Sludge Management Option. So, lets make compact clay,
road paver, or insulating material. Well, the Authority just
recently implored that the paradigm of SW Mgt has shifted
from 'Cradle to Grave' to
'Cradle to Cradle'. Sounds noble.

Prohibition against discharge of industrial effluent or mixed effluent containing certain substances
21. No person shall discharge or cause or permit the discharge of any industrial effluent or mixed effluent containing any of the following substances onto or into any soil, or into any inland waters or Malaysian waters:
(a) any inflammable solvent;
(b) any tar or other liquids immiscible with water;
(c) sawdust or wood waste; or
(d) sludges.

Making changes that alter quality of industrial effluent or mixed effluent
22. (1) The holder of a licence shall not make, or cause or permit to be made, any changes to the premises or in the manner of running, using, maintaining or operating the premises or in any operation or process carried out at the premises, which cause, or is intended or is likely to cause, a material increase
discharged from the premises, unless prior written permission of the Director General has been obtained for the change.
(2) For the purpose of subregulation (1), changes to licensed premises include—
(a) any change in the construction, structure or arrangement of the premises or any building serving the premises;
(b) any change in the construction, structure, arrangement, alignment, direction or condition of any channeling device, system, or facility serving the premises; and
(c) any change of, to, or in any plant, machine or equipment used or installed at the premises.
BMP in practice - Hazardous Waste Minimization Technique
Wash-water reuse reduces demand for fresh process water.
Phenol reduction in effluent reduces COD loads, thus, less
chemical coagulation-flocculation aids in the IETS.
Saves money and environmental liability!

Restriction on discharge or disposal of sludge
23. (1) No person shall discharge, or cause or permit the discharge or disposal of any sludge generated from any production or manufacturing process, any industrial effluent treatment system or water treatment plant onto or into any soil, or surface of any land, or into any inland waters or Malaysian waters
without the prior written permission of the Director General.
(2) In this regulation, “water treatment plant” means any facility used or constructed for the treatment of water for domestic or industrial purpose.

Reporting changes in information furnished for purpose of application of licence
24. An applicant for a licence or for the renewal or transfer of such licence shall, within seven days of the occurrence of any material change in any information furnished in his application or furnished in writing pursuant to a request by the Director General under subsection 11(2) of the Act, give the Director General a report in writing of the change.

Display of licence
25. The holder of a licence shall display his licence, together with every document forming part of the licence, in a conspicuous place in the principal building of the premises. Continuance of existing conditions and restrictions in case of change in occupancy
26. Where a person becomes the occupier of any licensed premises in succession to another person who holds an unexpired licence in respect of such premises, then—
(a) for a period of fourteen days after the change in occupancy; or
(b) where the new occupier applies within the period specified in
paragraph (a) for the transfer of the licence to him, for the period
from the change in occupancy until the final determination of his
application,
the conditions and restrictions of the licence shall be binding on the new
occupier and shall be observed by him, notwithstanding that he is not yet the
holder of the licence or that the licence may, during the period as specified
in paragraph (a) or (b), as the case may be, have expired.

Maintenance of record
27. (1) An owner or occupier of a premises equipped with the industrial effluent treatment system shall maintain records of the manufacturing processes, operation, maintenance and performance monitoring of the industrial effluent treatment system.
(2) The records under subregulation (1) shall be made available for inspection by the authorized officer.
Personnel training
28. An owner or occupier of a premises—
(a) shall ensure that his or its employees attend training on environmental requirements and the best management practices in the operation and maintenance of industrial effluent treatment system before they
begin work;
(b) shall ensure that the training for his or its employees include retraining on updates for new, revised and existing requirements and procedures; and
(c) shall maintain records of training which shall include the training date, name and position of employee, training provider and a brief description of the training content.

Owner or occupier to render assistance during inspection
29. An owner or occupier of a premises shall provide the Director General or any authorized officer every reasonable assistance and facility available at the premises, including labour, equipment, appliances and instruments that the Director General or authorized officer may require for the purpose of inspection.
Drain-gates is a contingency
for accidental releases.

Prohibition order
30. (1) In the event of any undesirable occurrence as listed in the Twelfth Schedule, the Director General may issue a prohibition order to an owner or the occupier of a premises prohibiting the further operation of an industrial plant or process absolutely or conditionally for such period as the Director General may direct or until remedial measures as directed by the Director General have been complied with.
(2) For the purpose of subregulation (1), a copy of the Director General’s prohibition order shall be posted in a conspicuous place in the vicinity of the facility to which the said prohibition order refers and No person shall operate such industrial plant or process with effect from the date of the prohibition order until the prohibition order is withdrawn.
(3) Where a prohibition order has been issued to an owner or occupier of any premises prohibiting the further operation of an industrial plant or process, the Director General or any authorized officer shall render such industrial plant or process inoperative by any means as the Director General or authorized officer may determine.
TWELFTH SCHEDULE [Subregulation 30(1)]
LIST OF UNDESIRABLE OCCURRENCES
1. Pollution cases that seriously threaten the environment or public health and safety which warrant immediate halt.
2. Premises that experience industrial disaster such as fire, explosion and the like which may pose serious risk to the environment or the public in the vicinity.
3. Serious environmental pollution which gives rise to frequent complaints and upon investigation, the complaints are found to be justified and the premises are flouting the directives of the Director General.
4. Premises which frequently commit similar offences despite having been subject to various legal actions by the Director General such as notices, directives, compounds or court action.
5. Pollution cases which cause serious negative impacts to aquatic life and there is evidence indicating that the premises do not make sufficient effort to overcome the pollution problems.
6. Serious environmental pollution with wide coverage in the mass media and there is evidence indicating that the pollution occurred as a result of absence, non-operation or malfunctioning of industrial effluent treatment system in the premises.
7. Premises which discharge untreated or partially treated industrial effluent or mixed effluent or which discharge industrial effluent or mixed effluent through a by-pass and based on measurements or analysis of industrial effluent or mixed effluent quality using in-situ methods, there is evidence indicating that the industrial effluent or mixed effluent is grossly non-compliant.

Licence fee
31. (1) The fee for a licence shall be five hundred ringgit and an additional effluent-related licence fee computed in accordance with the method as specified in the Thirteenth Schedule.
(2) The fee for a licence and the additional effluent-related licence of five hundred ringgit shall accompany the application.
(3) If the Director General refuses to approve the application for a licence and the additional effluent-related licence, only the effluent-related licence fee shall be refunded.
(4) The fee for transfer of licence shall be one hundred ringgit.
THIRTEENTH SCHEDULE [Subregulation 31(1)]
METHOD OF COMPUTING EFFLUENT-RELATED LICENCE FEE
Parameter                  Fee per kg of contaminant                                Fee per kg of contaminant
                                   discharged into inland waters                            discharged onto any soil or into
                                as specifi ed in paragraph   11(1)(a)                         other inland waters
(i) BOD5 at 20°C                           RM 0.50                                                RM 0.05
(ii) Mercury                                   RM 2500.00                                           RM 250.00
(iii) Cadmium                                 RM 2500.00                                           RM 250.00
(iv) Chromium, Hexavalent            RM 2500.00                                            RM 250.00
(v) Chromium, Trivalent                 RM 2500.00                                           RM 250.00
(vi) Arsenic                                    RM 2500.00                                           RM 250.00
(vii) Cyanide                                  RM 2500.00                                           RM 250.00
(viii) Lead                                      RM 2500.00                                           RM 250.00
(ix) Copper                                    RM 2500.00                                           RM 250.00
(x) Manganese                               RM 2500.00                                           RM 250.00
(xi) Nickel                                     RM 2500.00                                            RM 250.00
(xii) Tin                                         RM 2500.00                                            RM 250.00
(xiii) Silver                                     RM 2500.00                                            RM 250.00
(xiv) Selenium                                RM 2500.00                                           RM 250.00
(xv) Barium                                   RM 2500.00                                           RM 250.00
(xvi) Fluoride                                 RM 2500.00                                           RM 250.00
(xvii) Formaldehyde                       RM 2500.00                                           RM 250.00
(xviii) Zinc                                     RM 2500.00                                           RM 250.00
(xix) Boron                                    RM 500.00                                             RM 50.00
(xx) Iron                                        RM 500.00                                             RM 50.00
(xxi) Phenol                                   RM 500.00                                             RM 50.00
(xxii) Sulfide                                  RM 500.00                                             RM 50.00
(xxiii) Oil and Grease                     RM 500.00                                             RM 50.00
(n-hexane extract)                         RM 500.00                                              RM 50.00
(xiv) Ammoniacal Nitrogen            RM 500.00                                              RM 50.00
Electrolytic Diposition Phosphating is a prime
process in the automobile manufacturing.
It's rinse water bath overflows and drained into an IETS.
Periodically this tank may need to be emptied and
cleaned for as part of their practice in ensuring
consistency of this electrolyte quality. This sudden
bulk discharge has in most cases caused
'Shock Loading' to the IETS. What transpire in this
system and which parameters would become
  'spikes' in their effluent monitoring data?

Penalty
32. Any person who contravenes regulations 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29 and 30 shall be guilty of an offence and shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred thousand ringgit or to a term of imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years or to both and to a further fine not exceeding one thousand ringgit a day for every day that the offence is continued after the notice by the Director General requiring him to cease the act as specified in the notice has been served upon him.

Revocation, transitional and savings provision
33. (1) The Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents) Regulations 1979 [P.U. (A) 12/1979] is revoked (hereinafter referred to as “the revoked Regulations”).
(2) Any application made under this revoked Regulations for a licence to contravene the acceptable conditions, renewal or transfer of such licence, or written permission, which are pending immediately before the date of the coming into operation of these Regulations shall, after the date of the coming into operation of these Regulations, be dealt with under the revoked Regulations and for such purposes it shall be treated as if these Regulation have not been made.
(3) All licences issued and written permission granted under the revoked Regulations shall, after the date of the coming into operation of these Regulations, continue to remain in full force and effect until the licence expires, is amended, suspended or cancelled or the written permission expires or is revoked under
the revoked Regulations and for such purposes it shall be treated as if these Regulation have not been made.
(4) The provisions of the revoked Regulations relating to the acceptable conditions for discharge of effluent shall continue to apply until twelve months after the date of the coming into operation of these Regulations where on the date of the coming into operation of these Regulations—
(a) any work on any construction of any industrial effluent treatment system has not commenced within twelve months from date of the issuance of the written permission for its construction immediately
before the date of the coming into operation of these Regulation;
(b) any work on any construction of any industrial effluent treatment system has commenced but has not been completed immediately before the date of the coming into operation of these Regulations; or
(c) any work on any construction of any industrial effluent treatment system has been completed but has not begun its operation before the date of the coming into operation of these Regulations.
(5) Where on the date of the coming into operation of these Regulations, any premises is discharging industrial effluent or mixed effluent into any inland waters which is not specified as a catchment area under the revoked Regulations immediately before the date of the coming into operation of these Regulations, the provisions of the revoked Regulations relating to acceptable conditions for discharge of effluent shall continue to apply to such effluent until twelve months after the date of the coming into operation of these Regulations.
(6) Any proceeding, whether civil or criminal, commenced under the revoked Regulations and are pending on the date of the coming into operation of these Regulations shall, on the date of the coming into operation of these Regulations, be continued and concluded under the revoked Regulations and for such purposes it shall be treated as if these Regulation have not been made.

Hope this would save your back and forth flicking of the law book and alleviate judicial related stresses!